Oenologie - Tout savoir sur les vins de Loire - Les Grappes

All you need to know about Loire wines

A few words about the region

We recognize the Loire River with its exceptional landscapes, especially with its castles and fortresses along the 800 km of the Loire Valley. The vineyards, essential elements of this unique cultural landscape, flourish from Chalonnes-sur-Loire (Maine et Loire) to Sully-sur-Loire (Loiret) and give rise to a wine list offering rich and complex wines that are among the best and most remarkable in France.

But before looking at the flavours and aromas of these wonderful wines, it is important to look back to understand their origins... As with most vineyards in France, we can thank the Romans for getting things started! During their conquest of Gaul in the 1st century AD, they not only noticed that the climate and soil were favourable for vines, but also that the Loire River could serve as a convenient route for transporting goods across the Empire. Halfway between the Latin south and the Germanic north, the Loire was also in the centre of France in the Middle Ages; it was here that culture, language and royalty met. Today, the UNESCO-listed valley continues to attract crowds - and not just royalty! The "Garden of France" attracts green-fingered travellers and gourmets alike who find their paradise in the heart of the vineyards and thriving gourmet markets .

The main appellations of the Loire Valley

As a whole, the Loire is very diverse in terms of wine styles, climate, geography and geology. It is thus divided into three main wine-growing areas:

  • Le Pays Nantais.
  • Anjou-Saumur and Touraine.
  • The Centre (or the Haute-Loire).

The styles of wines made in these three regions vary from light and acidic (Muscadet), sweet styles with honey aromas (Bonnezeaux), sparkling whites of Vouvray and juicy and tannic reds of Chinon and Saumur. Without forgetting the two greatest wines of the Loire: Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé. These wines are the product of a climate that is also variable (which is relatively continental and becomes resolutely maritime as the river approaches the Atlantic coast), as well as a soil that also varies considerably.The hard granite of the Côtes du Forez is remarkably different from the flint and limestone around Sancerre and Pouilly-sur-Loire, and even more so from the soft, crumbly tuffeau of Anjou.

The Nantes region

It is in Le Pays Nantais that you will find the best white wines of the region. Most of the vineyards giving birth to these wines are located on the flat, south-facing banks of the Loire, Sèvre and Maine rivers. They enjoy a maritime climate with cold, wet and stormy winters and summers that are often hot, humid and windy. Taking its source from this climate which is both maritime and continental, Melon de Bourgogne is the flagship grape variety of the Nantes region. It is not a particularly tasty variety, so we owe it careful care and a good vinification, so as not to run the risk of obtaining bland wines, without attractive characteristics.

Other grape varieties grown in the Pays Nantais include Chenin Blanc and Pinot Gris for white wines, and Gamay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc for reds. These grape varieties can all be used for the wines of the Coteaux d'Ancenis appellation. Folle Blanche, known by its local name "Gros Plant", is also grown here and gave birth to the appellation Gros Plant du Pays Nantais. Finally, let us not forget the AOP Muscadet, the largest appellation (in terms of size) in the Loire: all its wines are dry and made from Muscadet. Expect these wines to be generally cheap and to be enjoyed young and fresh. Lean, mineral and recognizable by its subtle aromas of pink grapefruit and white pepper, Muscadet is the ideal accompaniment to your seafood and shellfish!

Anjou-Saumur and Touraine

The vineyards that surround the cities of Angers and Tours are located in some of the most elegant and breathtaking landscapes in all of France. It is here that Chenin Blanc reaches its peak, Cabernet Franc takes centre stage and sparkling wines reign supreme!

Anjou is best known for its great Chenin Blanc appellations (sometimes with a little Chardonnay or Sauvignon Blanc), notably Savennières and Coteaux du Layon. The rosé made in this region is also recognizable by its sweetness. The Saumur, for its part, is best known for its traditional method white and rosé sparkling wines. It also contains the appellation of Saumur-Champigny, which produces beautiful Cabernet Franc reds.

In Touraine, you will find that most of the vineyards, concentrated south of the city of Tours, are planted on the slopes of the Loire and Cher rivers. Here the soils vary between chalk, sand, gravel, clay and limestone pebbles, but the most notable soil type is tuffeau, a limestone soil typical of the Loire, which, thanks to its high quality, is very well suited to the soil of the Loire Valley.The Loire, with its porous character, contributes to the acidity of the zest of the grapes of Touraine; it is in this sense that Touraine embodies very well the Loire. It also offers world-renowned wines, made specifically from Chenin Blanc, representing 43% of all Touraine plantations, as well as Cabernet Franc, coming a long way behind with 7% of the plantations. You will finally find superb sparkling wines that will surprise you with their ageing potential...

The Centre

Although modest in size, the Haute-Loire is home to the most famous appellations of the region: Loire-Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé, with a number of lesser known appellations such as Orleans, Valençay, Quincy and Côtes du Forez. The Sauvignon Blanc from these wine-growing areas is imitated all over the world!

If this wine-growing area differs from its neighbours and is given a special status, it is precisely because its wines and its terroir are very different from those of Touraine, the Haute-Loire and the Loire Valley.Anjou, and especially the Pays Nantais; the marine, cool and humid climate of the Muscadet vineyard contrasts sharply with the drier and almost continental conditions of Sancerre, located 325 km to the east. This is reflected in the wines and explains (in part) the difference between the elegance of Muscadet and the aromatic power of Sancerre.

In many respects, we could even say that this region has more in common with the Burgundian region of Chablis than with the rest of the Loire Valley: it also has a semi-continental climate, with large differences between day and night temperatures.

The main grape varieties of the Loire Valley

The main white grape varieties used to make Loire Valley whites are Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Melon de Bourgogne and Chardonnay.

  • Sauvignon Blanc: native to Bordeaux and generally mixed with Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc travels the world thanks to its easily accessible perfume; simple and full of flavors rarely hidden.With this in the background, wines made from Sauvignon Blanc are ideal for anyone about to start their first tasting lessons!

  • Chenin Blanc: Also known as "Pineau de la Loire", Chenin Blanc is the main grape variety used in the production of white wines. Cultivated in France for nearly 1300 years, this grape went out of fashion at the beginning of the 20th century, but regained its status as a noble and traditional grape variety in the 1980s. The best expressions of Chenin Blanc de la Loire are undoubtedly the sweet, botrytised harvest wines of Quarts de Chaume and Bonnezeaux, where the autumn mists in the cold valleys of the Loire provide the necessary conditions for the grapes, giving the wines their cooked apple, peach, blackberry and quince flavours.

  • Melon de Bourgogne: Melon de Bourgogne is the grape variety synonymous with the Muscadet appellation in the western Loire Valley. In the vineyards, Melon de Bourgogne buds relatively early, to the point that even in the event of a late spring frost, its secondary buds would be able to produce reasonable yields. The best wines made from this variety have apple and citrus aromas with underlying mineral notes. Salinity can sometimes be identified and reminds us of the maritime geography of the region.

  • Chardonnay: although the most appreciated expressions of the variety are those of Burgundy, Chardonnay manages to deploy its aromas of tropical fruits, citrus fruits, apples and stone fruits in the Loire region. It goes perfectly with a butternut squash risotto or even a Japanese style pork belly.

The flagship red grape variety of the Loire unquestionably is Cabernet Franc. This one hides behind the reds of Chinon, Saumur and Bourgueil. It is most often found in blended wines, where it adds herbaceous accents of tobacco and dark spices.


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