Portraits Vignerons - Le Clos Des Quarterons, la condition de l’agriculture biologique - Les Grappes

Le Clos Des Quarterons, the condition of organic farming

A few days before the big jump into the 2019 harvest, Xavier Amirault tells us the story of the Clos de Quarterons. With passion, he takes us to discover the richness of his terroir, on the terrace of Graviers and the slopes of Tuffeau, where he works his vineyard with enthusiasm and curiosity. The challenge of biodynamics is no less than the challenge of biodynamics to quench the thirst to learn of this family of winegrowers, who combine the pleasure of wine with transmission and sharing.

On the terroirs of Saint Nicolas de Bourgueil, Xavier Amirault is the winemaker of the Clos de Quarterons. This family estate has been handed down in the family for 6 generations. Xavier was not predestined to take over the estate: electronics studies, then a position in Paris in a sound and light company occupied him during the first years of his career. At the age of 30 and with the desire to go and see the country, it is with a new international trade licence in his pocket that he takes off for the United States, on behalf of a large Loire wine merchant company.

Meanwhile, in Saint Nicolas de Bourgueil, Thierry, Xavier's older brother, is in charge of the Domaine.

"In 2008, he was close to retirement and without a buyer. We then asked ourselves the question of the future of Clos de Quarterons," says Xavier. On the other side of the ocean, he decided, with his wife Agnès, to perpetuate the family inheritance. "We had agreed to take over the estate on 2 conditions: 3 years later and once the vineyard had been converted to organic farming. My brother was very enthusiastic about this project", the winegrower is delighted.

Xavier and Agnès Amirault embark on the wine adventure

Xavier will settle down in 2011 at the Clos des Quarterons where he will partner with his brother for 2 years before taking over the estate. "I was in charge of setting up the Déméter biodynamic certification," Xavier says. It is a new impetus that is given to the Domaine de Saint Nicolas de Bourgueil and which starts on a solid base. "We have launched a study of terroir thanks to the "cellule terroirs" from the INRA in Angers. A colossal project: 400 core samples and 24 open pits for 2 years allowed us to study the vegetative and root cycles. From these studies, we drew thousands of data, maps and plans of water reserves, stoniness, ... ", lists the winemaker.

Knowing one's terroir to build one's range of wines

Until now, knowledge of the terroir has come from knowledge passed down from father to son and obtained through observation. "We have been able to complete them and understand them better. We have obtained a finer and more precise analysis of the terroir thanks to which we have reviewed our production", Judge Xavier.

Enriched by this new knowledge of their terroir, the Amirault family decided to review their range of wines. "We now work in a more precise way, with different cultivation techniques, vinification and maturing adapted to the terroir", explains the winemaker.

From the gravelly soils at the bottom of the hillsides, to the famous limestone called tuffeau to the more clayey terroirs on the higher ground, the winegrowers have identified a potential of 5 cuvées. "We try to express the terroir through its climate every year. The wines from the gravelly terroirs are round and silky. The limestone expresses itself rather by horizontality, with beautiful and frank acidities at the end of the palate. As for the clays, they produce wines with a lot of depth. We often blend them with limestone because they are very complementary ".

Le Clos des quarterons works with finesse and precision.

The Clos des Quarterons is 12 units of terroir, 54 plots, 37 hectares of vines. A vineyard as varied as it is fragmented, which is worked in such a way as to extract the best from it, each of the plots are vinified and harvested separately.The winegrowers build the cuvées only after tastings: "We assemble the individual plots differently each year, depending on the vintage". The aim is to produce wines of pleasure and emotion while expressing the richness of the climate of Saint Nicolas de Bourgueil. "All years are good if they are respected and we produce wine profiles that correspond to the climate. These are wines for people who are curious, who love wine and feel new aromas ".

Biodynamics to enhance the value of the terroir

Biodynamics allows the Amirault family to express the terroir in the wines. "I started analyzing biodynamics in the United States," says Xavier. "I met people and tasted a multitude of wines. While biodynamics may seem complicated and esoteric, once I got past its considerations, I found that it was a great way to get to know the wines and the people who make them.I found a lot of common sense, I enjoyed tasting the wines, I really liked people's philosophy.Biodynamics doesn't only concern the vines, it's the whole of agriculture, and it's also a real system of society", Xavier enthuses.

In the vineyard, biodynamics means feeling, observing, taking care of the soil and the plants. According to Xavier, "Before starting to work in biodynamics, you have to be convinced, because it's a lot of work and a lot of surpassing oneself". The winegrower therefore learns to juggle between horn dung or horn silica, plays with plant infusions to revitalize the vine, brings silica to structure it ...". To get there, you need a team that works with this philosophy," says Xavier, who has built a team of 12 full-time people to do the necessary work.

Xavier and Agnès Amirault look towards agro-forestry

Curious, Xavier never tires of learning, experimenting, understanding and building. If he has found in biodynamics the philosophy and the reflection that allows him to develop the domain, he has not yet planned to put his final touch to it. "I want to continue to refine on all subjects. In breeding, I want to understand how to use the different amphoras. In the cellar, there are a plethora of possibilities for simple vinifications: on macerations, whole bunches, cement or buried eggs, different sized tuns", he projects. But the biggest project is probably in the vineyard, with the introduction of agroforestry in the vineyard. "I want to reintroduce trees and hedges, bring back biodiversity and move away from monoculture vineyards. We are also in the process of reincorporating the farm on the estate, to bring back the cultivation of fruit trees, market gardening, cereals and breeding as at present the presence of geese, lambs, as well as for the last 2 years trials of mobile hen houses in the vineyards for the hens. My magic idea is to create a real biodynamic farm as a whole ".

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